The Serene Ravine of Lake Claire

By: Stacey Wildberger w/ Al Todd

There is a little known, sometimes forgotten Ravine that feeds into Lake Claire, across from the property address 1037 Lake Claire.  According to resident Al Todd, most of the flow into the ravine is intermittent (i.e. flows mostly in response to rainfall and storm water runoff with some minimal base flow)  The watershed reached up to St Margaret’s Road and Hampton Road, Glenwood Dale Drive to Summit Drive.  When the sewer lines were first installed in the Cape, a main line was run down through this area and for a long time there was an access road to the pump house that ran from Lake Claire Drive down.  The rusted poles and part of the old cable gate are still there.  Soon after the sewer line, a storm drain inlet was installed at 1037 Lake Claire and the original stream channel that ran through this lot was placed in a concrete culvert to prevent flooding of the road. Gabion check dams were installed about the same time to prevent too much erosion from the storm water system.   It is likely that the entire area was disturbed during this decade of sewer installation and storm water work. A group of residents formed Friends of Lake Claire and began working on cleaning up the many invasive plants and hauled tons of debris out of the ravine, pointing to the fact that it was likely a dumping ground and storage site for construction supplies. In 2013, with funds from a grant, they hired Eco-Goats as an environmentally and efficient way to remove the invasive plants that covered area.  You can still see the vines hanging down to just above the tallest goats reach.  Later, Friends of Lake Claire became Cape Conservation Corps in 2015 as we broadened our focus to other natural areas of Cape St Claire. 

Interestingly, there is still a small intermittent wetland on the lower west side of the ravine that is likely fed by groundwater.  It remains wet for several days to a week after rainy spells.    Bald cypress and willow were planted down there; keeping the lower part of the trail very wet as it overflows during these periods.  Long-time Broadneck Peninsula Mac Rideout resident shared the following story with Al many years ago, before his passing.  “His family owned much land in the area (including Whitehall manor and other properties).  He was a real history buff and wrote a history of the area some years ago.  One of the stories he told me one time he was at my house was that when he was a boy (and there was no Cape St Claire, no Highway 50, no Bay Bridge, etc.  They used to ride their horses all over this area because they were part of the Pony Club (red building at entrance to CSC) and used to race on the track that used to be at Revell Downs and the straight race track that turned into Hampton Road.  He said they used to ride horses down to the beach near Lake Claire and they always stopped at a spring that was in the ravine just behind my house.   That spring is gone of course, probably largely from the reduction of recharge from development.”   

Over the past year Cape Conservation has stepped up our efforts to further clear invasive plants from the Ravine to make way for beneficial native plants.  Some of the plants have been planted by us but many have sprung up on their own after being given a chance to thrive once the invasives were under control.  Last spring we experimented with fighting plants with plants.  We ordered 200 plugs of Packera Aurea golden ragwort and planted them in groups of 10-12 in various 5’ circles areas that invasive garlic mustard was known to grow.  The idea is that the golden ragwort will spread and suppress the garlic mustard. Throughout the spring and summer we have met almost weekly to hand pull the garlic mustard before it produced seed to help stop the spread of even more.  We have watched those small plants thrive, and spread in just this first season.  As we are weeding we have been planning where to plant another 150 plugs at the end of September for even more coverage.


As I mentioned, the more we have removed the invasive plants from the area the more you can see other plants, particularly native plants volunteering in the space.  I was very excited to see the following native plants come up in the Ravine as they offer valuable resources to our local fauna.  Please do not judge these plants by their names (almost all end in WEED).  A weed is simply a plant growing in a place you do not want it.  While some of these natives tend to be a bit aggressive they all serve an important part of our ecosystem.  The banks of the ravine are covered right now in Impatiens capensis jewelweed, a 3-5’ late spring to early fall orange blooming herbaceous plant.  One of the best features of this “jewel” is it attracts hummingbirds, butterflies and  bees  It is commonly found growing in ditches and along creeks so the Serene Ravine is the perfect location for it to thrive. 


One of my favorite pollinator attracting plants that has sprung up in the Serene Ravine is Eupatorium serotinum late-flowering thoroughwort or boneset.  A member of the aster family, it is fall blooming so it offers an important late season nectar source for pollinators and migrating butterflies.  The tiny white flowers can be seen covered in the largest variety of bees, flies, and other small insects I have ever seen.

Common Milkweed

As we know, Asclepias sp. milkweed is the only host plant that Monarch butterflies can lay their eggs on.  The Serene Ravine has become a nursery for the baby monarch caterpillars as Asclepias syriaca common milkweed has volunteered there.  While I was there last week I found many caterpillars munching happily away on this plant that many consider a “weed”.  These caterpillars will become the next generation of Monarchs that will soon begin their fall migration.  Luckily, in addition to their host plant we also have several nectar sources at the ravine for them to fuel up on for their long journey.


This next native “weed” I have a love/hate relationship with, Phytolacca Americana, pokeweed.  I love it because the dark purple berries provide a wonderful source of food for migrating and over wintering birds, the hummingbirds enjoy the nectar of the white flower and it is a host plant for giant leopard moth.  The berries even nourish our neighborhood foxes, opossums and raccoons. The hate because it can become so aggressive and quickly take over an area.  In my own yard I let it be in some of the wilder areas but try to control (remove) it from the garden areas.  In the right setting this “weed” can be a valuable addition to the ecosystem. 

What I learned over the last several months of weeding at the Serene Ravine was to not judge the plants that are growing there too quickly.  I have spent time getting to know what is there, identifying them and finding out what benefits or hazards they offer.  I took time to look for caterpillars on the milkweed, watched the swallowtail butterflies sip nectar from a highly invasive vine we are trying to eradicate, I studied the delicate boneset supporting so many varieties of pollinators and I noticed the ripening berries of the pokeweed that will soon nourish a variety of birds, including cedar waxwings, mourning doves, eastern kingbird, great catbird, summer tanager and hooded warblers. I encourage you to stop by the Serene Ravine and walk the path, stop on the benches and observe the life that is being supported in this little slice of natural area.  We need Wednesday Weed Warriors to control the invasive that continue to pop up and nurture the natives that spring up to support the local fauna.  If you are interested in helping with the continued restoration efforts please let me know at president@capeconservation.org. 

Our Native Plant Sale & Fest: Fall is the Time to Plant

By Stacey Wildberger

As usual the summer passes by quickly and we are preparing to welcome fall this month.  The good news is that fall is the best time of the year to plant!   We are having our 3rd annual Native Plant Fest and Sale on September 21st (9 AM to noon in the field behind the Cape St Claire clubhouse), so there will be a great selection of native plants suited for your Cape landscape right in your own backyard!  Why is fall the best the time of the year to plant?  The benefits to planting this time of year are numerous.  The cooler weather means less stress on the plants, less watering for you to do and they get a head start on getting established for next year.  There is also less insect and disease pressure and fall-planted blooming plants provide support for pollinators.  Of course the cooler temperatures also mean a more pleasant planting experience for the gardener!  We are going to have plugs, quarts and gallons in a variety of plants from A-Z (aster to zizia!) Let’s explore the plants we will have (subject to availability) at the sale.  You can see a complete list with hyperlinks to full descriptions on our website https://capeconservationcorps.org/events/event/fall-native-plant-fest-sale/

Let’s talk about plugs first.  This year we have ordered plugs from North Creek Nurseries for a variety of our plants.  They will be available by the flat and ½ flat.  A plug is a plant grown in cells of a planting tray and are a great way to get your garden started quickly. The LP50 (50 plugs per flat) are 5” deep by 2” square and the LP32 (32 plugs per flat) are 4” deep by 2.22” square.  Plugs will typically reach flowering maturity in their first year of planting.  They are quicker and more reliable than seeds, getting established in weeks rather than months.  They are an inexpensive alternative to larger sizes.  So, if you want to buy a large number of plants as groundcover or for large areas, you get more bang for your buck.  We will have Carex, ferns, and several ground covers available as plugs.  We will offer 3 ferns, Marginal Wood fern and Christmas fern for drier, shady areas and the beautiful Cinnamon fern that prefers a moister site.  Carex and grasses offer a beautiful structural element to your landscape and we will several varieties for all types of conditions.  One of my favorite Carexes is the soft flowing Carex pensylvanica; it thrives in part to full shade, dry to medium moisture. This low growing sedge with its soft, delicate arching leaves will make an excellent ground cover.  Another highly adaptable sedge is creek sedge.  It can tolerate full sun to full shade, moist to dry coil conditions as it works as a slope stabilizer or as an edging to a garden path.  Every garden needs the work horse ornamental native grass Little blue-stem.  This upright grass will not only add structure to your garden in the summer months but the fall and winter beauty of this grass cannot be beat.  It will thrive in poor conditions, full sun with dry to medium suits it best! Just 2-4” in height it will be a perfect addition to your landscape. If you are looking for a taller grass that will not flop as some tall grasses do, then the switchgrass “North Wind” is the plant for you.  This 4-6’ tall ornamental native grass will do well in full sun to part shade, its beautiful seed head will provide for migrating birds.  We will also have 5-6 groundcovers as a plug.  My favorites are Plantain Pussytoes, the host plant of the American Lady butterfly will make a beautiful groundcover in sun to part shade, dry soil.  The white (male) or tinged pink (female) bloom is so delicate and resembles a cat’s paw.  Another favorite I have talked about before, and that CCC planted in the Serene Ravine to combat invasive garlic mustard, is Golden Ragwort.  It grows and spreads easily to naturalize areas of your yard in a range of conditions, but will thrive in part shade with medium to wet soil.  Although it gets a delicate yellow flower on a 2’ stalk in early spring the best part of this plant is basal foliage that will stay green all year!  

The sale will also feature many herbaceous perennials that will offer many years of flowering beauty.  It is important to have something blooming during all seasons to support our pollinators.  We will offer a wide variety of spring, summer and fall bloomers.  Everyone loves to plant for Monarchs and we will offer 2 popular milkweeds, the host plant for the Monarch, Swamp Milkweed and Butterfly Weed. However, in the fall, the Monarchs need fall blooming plants to prepare for the long migration ahead.  Our selection of fall bloomers include several varieties of asters, and goldenrod for all conditions.  The White Wood Aster will work in the shadier areas of the yard, while Smooth Aster, New England Aster and Aromatic Aster will give you beautiful purple color in the sun.  Asters will attract a large variety of butterflies.  If you pair them with the yellow goldenrod you will have a stunning fall combination.  Our selections include Blue Stem Goldenrod that will tolerate poor, dry shady areas as well as full sun, Sweet Goldenrod will tolerate the same conditions but will thrive in full sun as will the arching stems of wrinkle-leaf “fireworks”, a pollinator magnet. Another great pollinator plant that I cannot say enough about is Mountain Mint.  Although it can behave as mints do, aggressive spreader, the benefits this plant can add to your garden cannot be topped.  I have seen a greater variety of pollinators on this plant than on any other plant I have.  The Swallowtails were so abundant this year and the top plant they were drawn to in my yard was Joe-Pye Weed.  We will have smaller cultivar (‘little joe”) that will attract those large butterflies to your yard.  My sleeper pick that many people aren’t familiar with is Blue Mistflower. This delicate plant offers a showy blue bloom from July to October and performs in a large variety of conditions, spreads by seed and rhizomes but it is easy to pull and share with friends.  It will weave its way through the taller perennials as it attracts butterflies.  We will have many more beautiful natives plants to enhance your landscape and add value to our ecosystem.

In addition to the sale of plants many experts will be on hand to help you select the best plants for your conditions.  Chris Pax, a Cape resident and landscape designer will be there to give you a tour of the plants and guide you in selecting the best combinations and ones suited for your growing conditions.  Visit her website to see the services and classes she offers https://www.annapolisnativelandscape.com/. The landscape designer, author of The Humane Gardener and blogger Nancy Lawson https://www.humanegardener.com/ will explain the relationships between the native flora and fauna.  She too can guide you in your selections.  Master Gardeners, Master Naturalists, Watershed Stewards, and Adkins Arboretum will all be ready to answer your gardening questions.  Find out how your yard can become Baywise Certified from the Watershed Stewards Baywise folks!  We look forward to seeing you September 21 and helping with all your fall garden needs!

And remember, we are pricing all plants at cost (plus shipping and sales tax, all included) to encourage everyone to add native plants to their yards.  You will not find lower prices anywhere !

Reflections on Gardening for Wildlife

By: Stacey Wildberger

For many years I typically chose plants for the garden because they were pretty, they caught my eye or smelled good.  These days, about 5 years now, I have begun to think more about what can the plant offer to the local fauna? What is its role in the ecosystem?  Is it a host plant for a butterfly’s caterpillar? Is it providing a spot for an insect to overnight or tuck its babies in safely?  Does it perform a function in the ecosystem? I have begun to re-think pretty and have quiet compassion for the ones who have no voice. 

My backyard

I am beginning to see the many rewards for the change in my way of thinking. Every evening when I go out into the yard I look around at every leaf, stem and bloom, I am searching for signs of life. A caterpillar feasting on its favorite host plant, a solitary bee placing her babies in the hollow tubes of the leftover flower stalks.  The ones I left standing over the winter then only cut back to 12-18” in late spring so that these bees and other insects might lay their babies in them.  A safe sanctuary.  I am searching for pollinators of various sizes, happily feeding on the nectar of the blooms of the native flowers I have planted for them.  The plants that they have spent thousands of years co-evolving with.  The ones that will provide the best nourishment for them. 

I gaze into my pond, looking for signs of life.  Did a turtle make his home, after eating the fruit off their favorite food-the mayapples?  Did a frog decide to take up residence amongst the water plants?  Was that a pickerelweed frog I heard jump into the water from his spot on the plant named for him- the pickerelweed?  Are there tadpoles or dragonfly nymphs growing in the pond—waiting to eat the mosquito larvae?  I look up into the air, searching for the dragonflies themselves who will also feast on the mosquitoes.  No need for sprays and nasty chemicals here with a balanced ecosystem.  The balance comes from a self-contained ecosystems.  The beneficial insects taking care of the pests.  Keeping them in check.  Without sprays to kill the good bugs they are around to eat the bad bugs; the way nature intended.  A great example of this natural pest management control is the Braconidae, a member of the wasp family and friend to gardeners.  Yes, a wasp that is your friend.  These wasps (there are 15,000 species of them) are parasitoids, meaning they are parasite of their host, that is their larva eats their host insect alive (yikes!).  Their favorite meals include some of gardener’s biggest pests-caterpillars, beetles, aphids, squash bugs, ad stink bugs.  They often specialize in a particular pest.  One particular enemy of the home gardener is the Tomato hornworm, if the Cotesia congregata wasp deposits her eggs into the tomato Hornworm it weakens the caterpillar as the eggs develop and it eventually dies-preventing the defoliation of your tomato plants.  If you see these larvae emerging from the tomato or tobacco hornworm, nature is doing its own pest management!

Infected tobacco hornworm

As I continue to walk my backyard ecosystem I am rewarded with several butterflies because of the host plants I have been adding.  Of course the Monarch is the result of 1 of 3 types of Asclepias sp. milkweed I have offered, swamp, common and butterfly weed. 

Butterfly weed

What about the American Painted Lady flitting around the front yard – from the Antennaria sp. Pussytoes I offered for her to lay her eggs on.  The Black Swallowtails are happy to lay their eggs on the parsley, dill and native Zizia Golden Alexander.  How about the never-before-seen-in-my-yard Question Mark butterfly because I added her host plant this year-Boehmeria false nettle?  I wouldn’t have seen her if I didn’t plant false nettle this spring.  So many Skippers from the asters, grasses, such as Panicum switchgrass, Sorghastrum nutans Indiangrass, and a variety of sedges.  The sassafras is allowed to self-sow so that they may host Spicebush caterpillars.  The same reason I planted Lindera benzoin Spicebush.  My paw-paw trees, though small now may someday provide a spot for the Zebra swallowtails to lay their eggs.  Every plant selected for what benefit it can provide wildlife.  How is it increasing biodiversity and enhancing the ecosystems?  Did I mention the small violets that volunteer in my yard?  They are often considered weedy but not only do they make an excellent groundcover but without them we wouldn’t be able to enjoy the fritterly butterflies in our yards!


We have not even admired the berry-producing trees and shrubs that provide nourishment to so many songbirds.  The Aronia Red Chokeberry, the spring offerings of the Amelanchier Serviceberry, Juniperus virginiana Eastern Red Cedars to attract the Cedar Wax wings, Callicarpa americana Beautyberry with its eye catching purple berries, Ilex verticillata Winterberry and their vibrant red berries, the wild cherries that I do not like the look of most of the time but the Robins are feasting on right now so I leave them.  The American Holly trees that are another favorite of many songbirds, as well as a favorite nesting area in the spring.  Another member of the Holly family (Ilex glabra) offering its dark ink colored berries up for the autumn feast-the Inkberry shrub.  Most nights you can find me outside, puttering around the garden, “working” on this or that but what I am really doing is reaping the benefits of having gardened for wildlife.  Putting the needs of nature in front of my own need or desire for a “pretty’ garden.  The end result is pretty on the inside and out.  I am sitting in one of several places in my yard that offer me a window into the ecosystem in my own backyard.  In times of climate change and mass extinction our backyard (and front) gardens provide a refuge for wildlife, a place where an ecosystem can exist.  The food web can exist—butterfly lays her eggs on a nearby host plant, the chickadee raising her clutch of babies in a nearby cavity scoops up the caterpillar to feed her babies (she needs up to 9,000 caterpillars to raise 1 clutch of chicks), and on up the line.  It can start in our own backyard.  It has to start there, because of loss of habitat and over development, wildlife can no longer simply exist “somewhere out there”  If we are all creating these mini ecosystems soon they will stitch together forming even larger areas of habitat.  We can find peace in our own landscapes and feel good about what we are providing.



“Slow it Down, Spread it Out, Soak it In”

By Stacey Wildberger

In the Cape Conservation Corps stated vision for our community we envision the elimination of “destructive storm water runoff and erosion from properties”.  One of the tools to accomplish this goal is Rain Gardens.  By controlling storm water we can improve the health of our local waterways by “slowing it down, spreading it out and soaking it in” –which is what a rain garden does. The purpose of a rain garden is to reduce storm water runoff, remove pollutants, create pollinator habitat and offer an attractive landscape feature.

What is a rain garden?  It is a shallow depression in the landscape that collects runoff from rooftops, driveways, and the yard. A rain garden is graded as a shallow depression as opposed to a typical landscaped area that is raised several inches.  A simple explanation is that it is a sunken garden filled with plants that are adapted to wet conditions.

A primary component of a rain garden is a filter bed, which allows the runoff to soak into the ground slowly and spread it out.  The filter can be assembled on site as a mixture of sand, soil, and organic material topped with mulch and heavily planted with native, moisture-loving plants.  It can also use the existing on-site soil if it percolates properly.

The plants in the rain garden should be able to withstand very wet to sometimes dry conditions because during a storm, rain water will collect 4-12” above the mulch layer before it filters into the soil (typically in 1-2 days).  During times of drought it can become drier.  The plants inside the rain garden basin should be able to tolerate wet feet while plants on the outer edges or berms will be plants that do not like it that wet.

Rain gardens can range from the simple design for the home landscape to moderate design suitable for a small business with several parking spots and a larger rood surface than a residence, to a more complex rain garden for commercial and industrial buildings with larger parking lots, rooftops and other impervious surfaces.

We will talk about the simple rain garden that you may want to consider for your home landscape.  The typical size for a home rain garden is 60-180 square feet in area to treat runoff from your home roof, driveway and yard areas, with a total drainage area of ¼ acre (10,000 sq. feet) or less – the size of an average Cape lot.  The water will enter from gutter downspouts or as sheet flow into the rain garden.  You can hire a qualified landscape designer and contractor who has had experience designing and installing rain gardens and then you, as the homeowner, can install the native plants and mulch and maintain the garden.

Any good landscape feature should have a suitable maintenance plan, especially in the early months of establishing the garden.  The maintenance will decrease once the rain garden has been firmly established (within 2-3 years) but it will require a few tune ups along the way.  During the first couple of months the plants will need to be watered as needed (less frequently if Mother Nature provides).  You may experience about 10% failure rate of the plants so plan on replacing them as needed. During the first 6 months and periodically afterwards you will want to check and replace eroded areas, check in inlets and overflow areas for debris or leaves that may be blocking them.

In late spring you can check over the plants for damage that may have occurred over the winter, add mulch if your plants have not filled in to create their own green mulch layer.  The perennials stems can also be cut back (remember we left them standing over the winter to allow our beneficial bugs a place to hide).  Remember one of the benefits to a rain garden is the habitat it provides pollinators. It is important to note that those plants we left standing all winter ARE NOT DEAD they are DORMANT and they are doing their job of providing a place for insects to overwinter.  Do not make the mistake of assuming they didn’t survive and rip them out.  You will have just set your rain garden value back to zero.  The roots that have been setting down growth under the soil will have been wasted.  Plants that took 2-3 years to establish these deep roots will be replaced with new plants that will have to start all over again.  You may need to edit some plants, or add additional plants but most is salvageable and just needs to be given the chance to grow when spring comes.

A few fall chores include adding to plants to increase density (the more plants the better!), prune shrubs as needed, thin (and share) excessive herbaceous plants and remove the excess (but not totally) the leaf matter. Finally, you should remove invasive weeds, dead or diseased plants, stabilize bare areas and remove any debris/trash that accumulates on an as needed and ongoing basis .

Rain gardens can not only control runoff and clean water before it re-enters the waterways but it can provided a beautiful landscape feature that benefits pollinators by creating habitat, providing food sources, and host plants for their young. If you are considering adding a rain garden to your home landscape please visit the following website to get more detailed information.


And then email at vp@capeconservationcorps.org to nominate you and your new rain garden as the next Habitat Hero!

A Second Look at Green Mulch – Combat Plants with Plants

By: Stacey Wildberger

As Spring is upon us and we are anxious to get out in our gardens to see what is popping up and making plans for what new plants we can add this year, let’s talk about an often forgotten layer in your landscape – the groundcover or Green Mulch Layer.  I have written about it in previous posts but I think it is important enough to discuss again. So many times we plan a new garden bed, stick a few plants in the ground and then surround it with mulch -brown wood chips or even worse dyed wood chips.  The plants are like little islands in a sea of mulch; never allowed to touch one another or socialize.  Plants are social organisms that desire the companionship of their plants friends, even more than that, they depend on it for communication.

As Spring is upon us and we are anxious to get out in our gardens to see what is popping up and making plans for what new plants we can add this year, let’s talk about an often forgotten layer in your landscape – the groundcover or Green Mulch Layer.  I have written about it in previous posts but I think it is important enough to discuss again. So many times we plan a new garden bed, stick a few plants in the ground and then surround it with mulch -brown wood chips or even worse dyed wood chips.  The plants are like little islands in a sea of mulch; never allowed to touch one another or socialize.  Plants are social organisms that desire the companionship of their plants friends, even more than that, they depend on it for communication.

Plantain-leaved pussytoes – Canadian wildginger

My first suggestion is to ignore those plant tags “spacing requirements” and plant them closer together.  A good rule of thumb is 12” apart (although I have been known to go even a little closer). The plants will be much happier as they can transmit beneficial information to each other, sharing information and resources such as “insects are attacking me”.  Another disadvantage to these mulch seas or beds is by leaving all that open space you are susceptible to weeds coming in and taking over, increasing your maintenance — nobody wants to spend time pulling weeds! If you plant more densely, and use groundcovers to fill in the bare spots you will save a lot of time.

Creek sedge – Pennsylvania sedge

By layering your plants in varying heights and structures you will begin to create more habitat, attracting natural predators to control the pests.  You will begin to build an ecosystem that is not only attractive to our eye but to nature as well. Your garden will morph over time, the early established plants will out compete the weeds early on and will gradually allow the slower plants to take over.  A few simple edits along the way will allow you to maintain an aesthetically pleasing garden.

Robin’s plantain – Appalachan barren strawberry

There are many plants that can be used as green mulch or groundcover and will suppress weeds, cover the ground and add interest to an otherwise barren sea of mulch.  By using plants as mulch you will also be increasing the sources of pollen and nectar needed for a dwindling number of insects.  These plants will spread by seed, rhizomes or both.  Because they are quick to establish, low maintenance and have a low growth height they are the perfect choice for green mulching.

Purple-leaved loosestrife – Allegheny pachysandra

Below is a partial list that North Creek Nurseries recommended for green mulch, which are also favorites of mine, plus a few of my own suggestions.

  1. Antennaria plantaginifolia – Plantain-leaved pussytoes – Light: full sun to part shade | Soil: lean to moderate fertility, dry to average moisture | Height: 6-12″
  2. Asarum canadense – Canadian wildgingerLight: part shade to full shade | Soil: moderate fertility, slightly dry to moist moisture | Height: 6-12″
  3. Carex amphibola – Creek sedge – Light: full sun to full shade | Soil: moderate fertility, dry to average moisture | Height: 8-12″
  4. Carex pensylvanica  – Pennsylvania sedgeLight: part sun to full shade | Soil: moderate fertility, dry to average moisture | Height: 8-10″
  5. Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus ‘Lynnhaven Carpet’  Robin’s plantain – Light: full sun to full shade | Soil: lean to moderate fertility, dry to moist moisture | Height: 6-12″ (foliage)
  6. Waldsteinia fragaroides – Appalachian barren strawberryLight: full sun to full shade | Soil: lean to moderate fertility, dry to moist moisture | Height: 3-6″
  7. Lysimachia lanceolata var. purpurea – Purple lance-leaved loosestrife Light: full sun to part shade | Soil: lean to moderate fertility, average to moist moisture | Height: 12-24″
  8. Pachysandra procumbens – Allegheny pachysandraLight: part sun to full shade | Soil: moderate fertility, average to moist moisture | Height: 6-10″
  9. Packera aurea – Golden ragwortLight: full sun to full shade | Soil: lean to moderate fertility, average to moist moisture | Height: 6-12″
  10.  Packera obovata – Roundleaf ragwort – Light: full sun to full shade | Soil: lean to moderate fertility, dry to moist moisture | Height: 6-12″
  11. Chrysogonum virginianum – Green and gold – Light: part shade | Soil: Moist but well drained, to drier soils | Height: 6-8”

In addition to reducing weeds in your garden, using these groundcovers can offer additional benefits in the natural areas of our community.  Author Nancy Lawson, “The Humane Gardener” discovered by accident that Packera aurea Golden ragwort could be used to combat the dreaded invasive Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard.  Some forgotten pots were left under a tree, they escaped the pot and began to choke out the garlic mustard.  What better way to rid an area of an invasive plant than by planting a native one. 

Golden ragwort – Roundleaf ragwort

Garlic mustard is a problem is many of the roadside ravines and natural areas in our community so we have decided to put Nancy’s findings to the test.  We will be planting 200 plus of Packera aurea in the Ravine leading to Lake Claire on April 6th.  We will plant 10-12 plants in 5-ft circles where the garlic mustard is most prolific and see if it can smother the garlic mustard growing there.  We will not be pulling or digging the invasive plant so we can minimize soil disturbance and leave the seed bank buried! In addition to the 200 plugs at the Ravine we will plant another 100 plants as a green mulch layer at the Little Magothy Rain Garden on the same day.  We are hoping to suppress the weeds that continue to cause problems.  If you are interested in helping please contact me at vp@capeconservationcorps.org. Great for Scouts, NJHS or NHS hours or just because! 

Green and gold – also see top photo

For more information on Green Mulch and other great gardening ideas please check out the following resources:

  1. Nancy Lawson, author of “The Humane Gardener” and wildlife blogger. Her website is https://www.humanegardener.com/ and her book can be found @ Amazon
  2. Benjamin Vogt, author of “A New Garden Ethic: Cultivating Defiant Compassion for an Uncertain Future” and blogger. His website can be found at
    https://www.monarchgard.com/ and his book is available through Amazon
  3. And finally check out Thomas Rainer and Claudia West’s book “Planting in a Post-Wild World” for a great description of green mulch and groundcover layer.

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